This article from SPIE discusses an electron-beam-lithography technique which fabricates diffractive optical structures such as classic Fresnel-zone-plate lenses with fine features. Diffractive optical elements are especially useful in parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as the soft x-ray region, where suitable materials for reflective and refractive structures are not available.
This article is a comprehensive review of 193nm immersion lithography. It focuses on the materials and processes rather than the optical system of the tool. The article covers the history and current status of the technology.