In the early days of DNA manipulation, DNA fragments were laboriously separated by gravity. In the 1970s, the powerful tool of DNA gel electrophoresis was developed. This process uses electricity to separate DNA...
Use of embryonic stem cells in research has been hotly debated for several years. This animation presents the basics on how stem cell lines are established. This animation from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Dolan DNA...
The discovery of enzymes that could cut and paste DNA made genetic engineering possible. Restriction enzymes, found naturally in bacteria, can be used to cut DNA fragment at specific sequences, while another enzyme, DNA...
Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer's historic experiment used techniques to cut and paste DNA to create the first custom-made organism containing recombined or 'recombinant' DNA. Cohen and Boyer inserted the recombinant...
In the early 1990s, Stephen Fodor and his team developed a technique to produce miniature arrays of biological molecules. Their work led to the first DNA chip, and became the basis of techniques for large-scale genomic...
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